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Geryllax Vu

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About Geryllax Vu

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    I am more interested in the space between the stars!
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    Toledo, OH, USA
  1. I have been struggling to find a clear and concise way to describe the point of the experiment and you have grasped it. I believe that as I have presented it your assumption is correct that an enclosed compartment is measurably different from an open reference frame. I agree that it would be possible to hear two tweets as you say because the air molecules in the moving compartment may slow down or speed up the sound wave depending on the sound wave's direction of travel. But a sound wave traveling through still air will always be c. I agree with your observation that there will be no Doppler effect for the train observer because the source and receiver are moving in the same direction at the same speed so the waves spread out at the source but squeeze together at the receiver thus cancelling each other out and leaving the original frequency. I plan on using this difference for the two observers in the future.
  2. It is a premise of the Galilean principle of relativity that every reference frame behaves mechanically like an enclosed compartment at rest. As a consequence of this premise it is presumed to be mechanically impossible to discern the motion of any reference frame by observing experiments conducted within that reference frame. Material objects in flight within an enclosed compartment will manifest a particular velocity that arises from momentum transfer through physical contact with the compartment walls. Objects in flight outside of the compartment will exhibit essentially the same behavior via contact with the external physical structure of the moving compartment. However, a sound wave in flight through an enclosed compartment where the air has no wind currents in it will manifest one particular velocity while a sound wave propagating through the still air outside the compartment will manifest some other velocity — in a moving enclosed compartment the contained air’s velocity is the same as the compartment’s velocity and would add to or subtract from the sound wave’s propagation velocity. There is then a difference in the mechanical behaviors of material objects and sound waves when they are moving through any particular medium based on whether that medium is within or outside of a moving enclosed compartment. Under certain conditions an observer in a stationary or moving reference frame may not have to apply the principle of addition of velocities from the Galilean or Lorentz transformation equations to the propagating sound wave. Not every reference frame is an enclosed compartment.
  3. On a windless day a train of length L travels along a level straight section of track at the constant velocity v. An observer in the caboose has a clock and a light source with which she will send a signal to the engineer at the front of the train. Upon seeing this signal, he will blow the whistle which will send out a sound wave that has the constant velocity c through the still air/medium. At this short distance a light signal is effectively instantaneous so upon sending the light signal she also starts the clock that she has. When the sound wave reaches the caboose observer’s ear she will stop her clock. She should then measure approximately the Newtonian universal time interval t between the departure and arrival events of the sound wave in the train reference frame. The caboose and the engine are at a fixed distance apart. They form a tandem which is moving through the still air at the single velocity v each endpoint maintaining their distance of separation. The sound wave and the caboose begin their journeys at the endpoints of L and will meet at some location in space between the original locations of the endpoints along their adjoining line. The sound wave travels the distance ct rearward towards the caboose and the caboose travels the distance vt forward towards the sound wave during the same interval of time t (distance = speed × time) and adding these two distances should equal L. Thus, all the variable values are available from within the train reference frame: ♦ L = ct + vt ; t = L / (c + v ) This formula (similar to the Michelson-Morley experiment) could be used by both the train observer (in the train reference frame) and an observer that she need not communicate with at rest on the nearby platform (in the platform reference frame). The train observer might assume the train to be in motion and would thus measure with her clock an interval of time that would indicate that the sound wave has travelled at the unchanged velocity c for a lesser or greater distance than when the train is at rest. This is a result of the consideration that the air molecules pass easily through the porous conceptual walls of any reference frame that is not an enclosed compartment. Alternatively, the train moves through a cloud of stationary air molecules that are not carried along by the train reference frame. There will be no addition to or subtraction from the velocity of the sound wave only a change in the distance the sound wave travels. The train observer will then not have to apply the principle of addition of velocities from the Galilean or Lorentz transformation between the two reference frames that are in relative motion. Let, L = 1000 meters; c = 343 meters/second; assume v = 30 meters/second: ♦not, t = L / c, (train, air, and platform at relative rest) = [1000 m] / [343 m/s] = 2.92 s ♦but, t = L / (c + v ), (train in motion through air) = [1000 m] / ([343 m/s] + [30 m/s]) = 2.68 s
  4. I personally don’t believe that empty space is a vacuum, Stub. It has cosmic dust and various cosmic particles in it through which sound can propagate. Additionally, these particles can affect the velocity of any waves, light or sound, propagating through them. So if a light source is submerged in any medium such as air, water, or Bose-Einstein condensate then the waves emitted in any direction will be slowed down by some amount as compared to the speed of light in a vacuum. If the medium is set into motion, then the light wave propagating in one direction will be slowed down according to the Fizeau partial convection formula. In the opposite direction it should be sped up but I will accept the top speed limit of light for now. This I think means that light can’t be used to calibrate space-time diagrams because any light experiments conducted in the presence of a medium will mean that light will have different speeds depending on which direction the light wave propagates relative to the medium, from the source to the receiver. This is similar to sound wave propagation.
  5. I'm still fine-tuning this paper but I think it is essentially correct. This is an excellent link Earl, empty space is not empty. Every vacuum has some stuff in it that alters the velocity of light in a mathematical way, I would agree with that.
  6. Hi Geryllax Vu,

    You say in your entry for 29th June 2013 that the first postulate of Einstein in his Special Theory of Relativity states "there is no experiment that can be performed in an enclosed laboratory that can detect absolute motion"

    About three years ago I invented a mechanical/optical device that measures absolute motion, it's very simple and a Professor at Manchester Uni said in a letter that the idea definitely works, it requires no information coming in from outside BUT nobody I have approached has shown any interest. Please can you explain why there is this lack of interest in what I think is a major step forward in physics.

     Regards Tony aka inkbottle

    1. Cornelius Varley

      Cornelius Varley

      It might be better to post your comment in the comments section of that particular entry 

       

  7. acey and andrew s If light propagates in the presence of a moving medium within a reference frame, not in a vacuum, then the velocity of the light will show some mathematical variation according to the Fizeau partial convection formula. I think I mentioned in the post that "not every reference frame is an enclosed compartment." Thus the medium within an enclosed compartment has the velocity of the compartment, but in the open the medium has zero velocity relative to the light beam this results in two different values for the speed of light in the two diffferent types of reference frames. You have to ask to which reference frame does the medium belong? This dependence of the wave speed on the motion of the medium is similar for light and sound.
  8. Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity defines simultaneity as: if two spatially separated events occur such that the light waves generated by these two events arrive at the midpoint of the line adjoining them, at a same time t, then these two events are considered simultaneous. However, if these two events occur in open still air -- which is disengaged from the motion of a material object through space -- then any sound waves that might also be generated at the light flash events may not arrive at this midpoint, at the same time. The events occur at the endpoints of their adjoining line and form a tandem, of length L, where all the discrete points on the line tandem (e.g., a high-speed train) are moving at a constant velocity v along a line parallel to the line adjoining the collection of points. The time and distance intervals measured in the tandem reference frame relative to the still air/earth reference frame may then be mathematically determined using a modified formula from the Michelson-Morley experiment in which the value of c is switched from the speed of light to the speed of sound. This switch is made plausible by the concept of the velocity constancy of wave phenomena. This methodology of using sound waves to investigate the motion of a material object through air thus calls into question the classical principle of relativity by dispensing with the need for a Galilean or Lorentz transformation between relatively moving reference frames. All needed physical information is available from within a single reference frame whether that frame is stationary or in motion. According to Special Relativistic (STR) mechanics, two events occur simultaneously if the light from each of those two spatially separated events meet at the midpoint of the line adjoining them, at the same time t. Additionally, if this simultaneity occurs in a reference frame that is considered to be stationary then the events will not be generally regarded as simultaneous in a reference frame that is moving with a linear constant velocity v relative to the stationary frame. This may be true for light waves but it will not be true for sound waves which rely on a medium for their propagation, sound does not propagate in a vacuum. The velocity of the medium has a measurable effect on the velocity c of propagating sound waves which follows the formulas experimentally observed by Doppler. The medium’s velocity may be zero or have any other value relative to the source and receiver and as a result the arrival times of the sound waves at the midpoint will be staggered due to the motion of the line tandem reference frame through the still air. An important but generally disregarded characteristic of this air/medium is that the air molecules pass easily through the porous conceptual walls of any inertial reference frame whose motion is disengaged from the open air. The still air will not be delimited by the walls of any stationary or moving reference frame in the same way as any air molecules contained within an enclosed compartment. A material object in flight within a reference frame follows a trajectory that is essentially the same as the object’s trajectory within an enclosed compartment; the object’s velocity will only be minimally impacted by any air resistance or wind. For sound waves however not every reference frame is an enclosed compartment. In the reference frame attached to the train the air molecules will have the velocity of the train only if they are in an enclosed compartment or sealed train car. This is because the solid walls of the compartment have imparted a mechanically invisible component of velocity upon the air molecules/medium contained within it. The non-zero velocity of the air then would increase or decrease the velocity of the sound wave and thus mechanically cloak the compartment’s motion during any experiment conducted within the enclosed compartment. On the other hand, the open still air outside any train compartment will be at rest relative to the moving train. This zero air velocity will result in the sound wave propagating at a constant velocity c relative to the train. Each scenario will consequently manifest a different velocity for any sound waves propagating through a medium within a reference frame based on the velocity of the medium relative to the sound wave. An objective of any test of simultaneity would be to determine if two events occur at the same time or if one event occurs before or after some other event. This would require some type of time measurement that could make a temporal distinction between what is earlier and what is later in observable mechanical terms. A possible means of distinguishing whether the abovementioned events are simultaneous involves utilizing sound waves to mechanically measure time intervals and distance intervals. So sending a sound wave along the length L parallel to its extension in space and then applying mathematical formulas that will allow the measurement and comparison of time and distance intervals in a way which is not constrained by any single reference frame could be a means to mechanically reflect the physics of simultaneity. A thought experiment oft used to explicate simultaneity involves an archetypical Einstein train of length L (distance between engine and caboose) travelling down a long level straight stretch of track, on a windless day, at the constant velocity, v. The air/medium is at rest relative to the earth and track. Suppose additionally that there is an observer seated on the roof at the midpoint of the train situated so as to see both the engine and the caboose and enjoying the view of the landscape. At some point in time two lightning bolts strike the cast iron hulk of the train, simultaneously, one at the engine end and one at the caboose end. At the occurrence of these two light flash events there are also two sound wavefronts generated. The departure events of the two sound waves are consequently also simultaneous. The arrival events of the light waves at the midpoint of the train will be simultaneous according to the STR. However, the arrival events of the sound waves will not be simultaneous due to the forward motion of the train through the stationary air. The relativistic formulas from STR require the acceptance of the mathematical pretense that if the observer is working from within the train reference frame then that frame is to be considered as being at rest. As a result, the propagating light waves will traverse a particular distance in a particular duration of time without taking into consideration the velocity of the train. However, the formulas for the propagating sound waves will be different as a consequence of the porous conceptual walls of the train reference frame which will allow the train reference frame to pass easily through the air, or the air to pass easily through the train reference frame. In the moving train reference frame the still air molecules outside the solid walls of any particular train compartment must be philosophically assigned to either the train reference frame or the earth reference frame or maybe both. The free passage of the external air molecules through the train reference frame will require a more complicated mathematical approach which takes into account the train and sound wave velocities relative to the still air. So the propagating sound wave will manifest a behavior mathematically different from the light wave in the train reference frame though they are occupying the same region of space. The train observer does not necessarily have to actually perform an actual mechanical experiment. She needs only to do some algebra to determine the mathematical solution that will state the simultaneous or non-simultaneous nature of events in the train reference frame. If she held two mechanically identical clocks at a single location she could find the flight time (Newtonian universal time) for each sound wave to reach the midpoint of the train. She would use the light waves as nearly instantaneous signals to indicate that she should start her clocks; at the lengths and speeds of a typical train this approximation should be valid. In addition, the effects of the gamma factor from the STR is very minimal at the speeds of a typical train in motion. Thusly, disregarding her reaction times, she could start the clocks simultaneously and the identical clocks would proceed to tick synchronously in an identical manner. Then by marking the clock readings for the arrival events of each sound wave at the midpoint she could make a decision as to the simultaneity of the sound waves arriving at her ears. If the light wave arrival events are apparently simultaneous but the sound wave arrivals are not, she might conclude that this may be due to the motion of the train. Another observer on the nearby platform could do the same if he had two clocks and he would come to a similar conclusion. In addition, there is not any type of direct communication between the two observers mechanical or otherwise. The train tandem of cars moves through space with each discrete point at a fixed distance of separation from any other point on the tandem. Working completely from within the train reference frame and using only information available to her from that reference frame then there are only two reasonable mathematical options to pursue. For the propagating sound wave she must take into mathematical consideration the state of motion or state of rest of the medium and apply the Doppler wind formulas for the flight time of the sound waves from the endpoints to the midpoint through the still air. As a prelude, each light wave, one from the engine and one from the caboose, will traverse the distance 0.5L at the constant velocity c. So, according to the STR the formula that best reflects the flight time (relativistic proper time) of the light wavefront coming from either one of two spatially opposite directions in a stationary reference frame is: [0.5L] / c = t = [0.5L] / c In a reference frame that is considered as being at rest then the sound wave will propagate in a mathematically similar way according to the classical kinematics formula time = distance / velocity. However, if the reference frame is regarded as being in motion at the train’s constant velocity v through the still air/medium, then each sound wave one from the engine and one from the caboose will consequently traverse unequal distances. One distance will be less than 0.5L and the directly opposite distance will be greater than 0.5L due to the motion of the train. The sound wave will travel these altered distances at the one constant velocity c. Since the symbol c is commonly used to represent both the speed of sound and the speed of light in many scientific reference texts then the formulas that best reflect a sound wave coming from a direction parallel to the motion of a reference frame moving with the constant velocity v is: t1 = [0.5L + vt1] / c = [0.5L] / (c – v) and from the opposite direction, t2 = [0.5L – vt2] / c = [0.5L] / (c + v) These two time intervals are self-evidently different, t1 ≠ t2. Both the train observer and the platform observer will determine the same value for the length interval L and the constant velocity of the train v by classical methods though they are in motion relative to one another. A particular classical method might be one in which a material object passes certain landmarks a known distance apart in a certain duration of time. This second pair of formulas will achieve nearly identical time results when used by either observer in his or her own reference frame. So this time difference could be used to determine simultaneity or not simultaneity due to the motion of a particular reference frame relative to some other reference frame. Also these two mathematical expressions bear a remarkable resemblance to the formulas that arose from the considerations of the Michelson-Morley experiment to detect the aether wind. That is, the time formulas that were applied to the light traveling along the interferometer arm that was aligned parallel to the direction of the earth’s orbital motion around the sun as an effort to investigate the earth’s motion through space. The goals of the Michelson-Morley experiment are very similar to the objectives of the thought experiment presented here. The first pair of formulas imply that the train is at rest or the reference frame attached to the train acts as an enclosed compartment. This would follow the Galilean and Lorentz reasoning of considering the reference frame attached to a material object to be at rest, although that object is in motion. Meanwhile, the second set of formulas include the velocity of the train relative to the earth in a mathematical way that recognizes the conceptual porosity of the walls of a moving reference frame following the reasoning of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The sound waves are in essence either meeting or overtaking the observer at the central location depending on the direction of motion of the sound waves relative to this central observer. Deriving the formulas recognizes that the distance between events increases for one direction such that the flight time between events also increases by some factor that includes the train velocity v. In the directly opposite direction the distance the wave travels decreases such that the time of flight for the wave decreases by a similar factor. The train reference frame will then appear to not be in motion at least according to any mechanical measurements of sound wave velocity made within an enclosed compartment on the train. While a sound wave travelling through the external still air can to a great approximation detect the train’s motion from within the train reference frame. Thus by mechanical hypothesis the time and distance interval values are invariant across the relatively moving reference frames. As a result, the variables can be assumed to be equal in both the train reference frame and the platform reference frame. Consequently, being able to mathematically determine the relative velocity then permits the finding of the simultaneity of events across reference frames which contradicts the STR since the train reference frame and the platform reference frame can use the same formula to investigate simultaneity. The STR states that the train observer and the platform observer must use different formulas which include the variable for the speed of light waves. However, the train observer can compare the differing times of sound waves arriving at her ears such that she can come to a decision about the approximate simultaneity of the lightning strikes by factoring in the motion and velocity of the train. She might conclude that what has caused the staggered times of the sound wave arrival events is the motion of the train. She may wonder why this is not true for light. If the train were regarded as being at rest, for the reference frames to preserve mechanical equivalence between the scenarios of a moving or stationary train then an apparent Dopplerian wind of velocity w must be summoned. The relative velocity v represents either the train moving past a stationary earth and atmosphere or the entire earth and sky are moving past a stationary train. The air/medium must retain the value of zero relative to the earth in both scenarios and the air must observably move past the stationary train or the train must move past the stationary air at either w or v. So this Doppler wind would appear to slow down the sound wave coming from one direction and speed up the sound wave coming from the opposite direction. Each sound wave would nonetheless travel along the same full length 0.5L between the endpoints and the midpoint on the train but at apparently different velocities: t3 = [0.5L] / (c + w) and from the directly opposite direction, t4 = [0.5L] / (c – w) where t3 ≠ t4. Since w = v, then the pair t3 and t4 is mathematically identical to the pair t1 and t2. This consequently means that the train observer and the platform observer could use the same formulas for measuring the time intervals between the sound wave arrival events. That is, each reference frame can use the one and the same set of formulas to find the invariant time intervals as viewed from each reference frame. Neither set of formulas specifically refers to measurements that are available only from the platform observer nor does the train observer need any especial information from the platform reference frame to find an algebraic solution for simultaneity. This algebraic solution will establish a mathematical relationship between relatively moving reference frames that dispenses with the need for any type of transformation equation. An observer at rest on a nearby platform would also see the sound wave from the engine end of the train arrive at the central location before the sound wave from the caboose. He could also use the abovementioned formulas with the identical variables to determine the time interval values for the departure and arrival events for each sound wave. Additionally, both observers would see the sound wave flight durations from each direction as measurably different by the same amounts. The single constant velocity c for the propagating sound waves will manifest in both reference frames though this velocity will have the appearance of having differing values as viewed by each relatively moving observer. In these two apparently mechanically different scenarios the reference frame from which the velocity of the train is viewed does not matter. All the variables are readily accessible from within the train reference frame, she simply has to do the algebra. CONCLUSION Typical mechanical experiments involving material objects or sound waves which are conducted in an enclosed compartment will usually not reveal the motion of the compartment relative to that which is outside the compartment. However, an experiment involving sound waves which is conducted outside of an enclosed compartment would expose the sound waves to the open motionless external air. This would present a description of a type of relative motion between reference frames which does not require either a Galilean or Lorentz transformations. It would establish a mathematical relationship between reference frames that are in motion relative to one another which allows the observers in each reference frame to use identical formulas for making invariant time, distance, and velocity measurements. The pretense of a stationary system from the Galilean principle of relativity and the Einstein STR can then be discarded and there would be no need for Galilean or Lorentz addition of velocities with respect to sound waves propagating in open still air. In addition, there is a lack of formulaic influence from the Lorentz gamma factor because v is so much less than c, where that c represents the speed of light The abovementioned formulas thusly displace the Galilean and Lorentz transformation equations to become a new form for expressing the mathematical relationship between relatively moving reference frames and in doing so challenge the validity of the classical principle of relativity. Since the observers have used identical formulas though they are in relatively moving reference frames then they will be in agreement as to the time measurements that would distinguish between the simultaneous and the non-simultaneous event scenarios. This would contest the validity of the STR which states that simultaneity can only be a relative concept; in other words, events are only simultaneous in a reference frame that is at rest, but are not necessarily simultaneous in a relatively moving reference frame. By these sets of formulas events will appear to be simultaneous when viewed by an observer located in a reference frame that is stationary and at the same time when viewed by an observer located in a reference frame that is in motion. This does not align with the formal definition of simultaneity as stated in the Special Theory of Relativity which is more strictly associated with propagating light waves.
  9. According to relativistic mechanics, two events occur simultaneously if the light from each of these two spatially separated events meet at the midpoint of the line adjoining them, at the same time. Additionally if this simultaneity occurs in a reference frame that is considered to be stationary, then the events will not be generally regarded as simultaneous in a reference frame that is moving with a linear constant velocity v relative to the stationary frame. This may be true for light waves, but it will not be true for sound waves, which rely for their propagation on a medium that passes easily through the porous conceptual walls of every inertial reference frame. The open still air will not be contained within the walls of both reference frames, in that the air molecules will be at rest according to the viewpoint of one reference frame, but at the same time in motion according to the viewpoint of the other reference frame. This disengagement of the air molecules from the motion of any moving material object within a reference frame is the primary underlying proposition of this paper. A thought experiment oft used to explicate simultaneity involves an archetypical Einstein train of length L travelling down a long level straight stretch of track, on a windless night, at the constant velocity, v. The air/medium is at rest relative to the earth and track. An observer, holding two mechanically identical clocks, is seated on the roof of the train at the midpoint between the engine and the caboose. She is at rest in the train reference frame, but she feels the still air rushing past her face at the apparent velocity of w (v = w). A storm threatens, and a number of lightning bolts have struck the ground around the rapidly moving train. She prepares herself. The engine and caboose are at the endpoints of the train, and they along with the midway point on the line joining them, have formed a tandem moving through space such that they maintain their distances of separation, whether the train is in motion or at rest. After a few moments, two lightning bolts strike, one bolt at the engine end of the train, and the other bolt at the caboose end of the train. These two events occur simultaneously, so that the light generated by the strikes against the metal, at each end, should arrive at the midpoint observer at the same time, in the train reference frame, as is supposed by the Special Theory of Relativity. However, the sound wave that is generated by the lightning strike against the metal at each end of the train will not arrive at the midpoint observer at the same time due to the motion of the train reference frame through the still air. Or conversely, so as to preserve mechanical symmetry for the train observer, an apparent wind must blow through the stationary train reference frame which causes the two travelling sound waves to arrive at the central location at different times. So, the train observer determines to use these light signal to mark the departure events of the two sound waves within the train reference frame. The light wave reaches her nearly instantaneously at this short distance, so she uses these flashes as the signals to start each of the clocks she holds so that they will now tick synchronously. Disregarding observer reaction times, the ticking clocks will essentially measure the time intervals tx for each sound wave to reach the central point as the train is in motion. The sound waves travel at the same constant velocity c through the still air towards the middle location, but the moving train will shorten the distance of travel for the sound wave coming from the engine; and lengthen the distance of travel for the sound wave coming from the caboose. Thus, the two time intervals will not be equal, the arrival events of the two sound waves at her ears will occur at different times and positions within the train reference frame. So, taking this into account, and that time equals distance divided by velocity, with the distance value from the endpoints to the midpoint mathematically being 0.5L: ♦t1 = [0.5L – vt1] / c = 0.5L / (c + v) ♦t2 = [0.5L + vt2] / c = 0.5L / (c – v) Since t1 ≠ t2, adding these two times gives, ♦T = t1 + t2 = 2[0.5Lc] / (c2 – v2) If the train were to be regarded as stationary while the earth and atmosphere are moving past it at the velocity w so that the air/medium remains at rest relative to the earth, then to maintain symmetry, an apparent wind must be summoned which will blow through the resting train reference frame. This will cause the velocity of one sound wave to be decreased, and the velocity of the other sound wave to be increased: ♦T = t3 + t4 = [0.5 L / (c + w)] + [0.5 L / (c – w)] = 2[0.5Lc] / (c2 – w2) where t3 ≠ t4. To restate this, each sound wave will travel the same distance from an endpoint to the midpoint. However, the apparent wind will have a velocity w equal to the train’s velocity v which will slow down the sound wave coming from one direction and speed up the sound wave coming from the opposite direction, thusly the sound waves will not arrive at the midpoint between their departure points at the same time. Since w = v, the result will be equivalent to considering the train to be in motion through the still air. Both these sets of equations resemble the total time formula from the Michelson-Morley experiment to detect the aether wind. However, neither equation takes the form of the total time that would be measured if the train, air, and earth were all at rest relative to one another: ♦T = t5 + t6 = 0.5L / c + 0.5L / c = 2[0.5L] / c where t5 = t6. Thus, adding these two measured time intervals, and then algebraically solving for v, the observer in the train reference frame should be able to find the train's velocity relative to the earth. This value of v represents the direction and magnitude of the train’s velocity since the train should be moving in the direction of the time interval with the lower value. Additionally, this velocity value should be equal to the value found by the classical method of measuring the duration of time to travel between two landmarks, of a known distance apart. But this new method, with slight alteration, can apply the Doppler Effect to the problem of the relative motion of material objects. The Doppler frequency shift formula gives differing values depending on the whether the source is moving towards the receiver, or the receiver is moving towards the source. This experiment can thusly be used to distinguish whether the earth and air is moving relative to a stationary train, or to preserve mechanical symmetry, the train is moving relative to a stationary earth and atmosphere. By this experiment, the use of sound waves will allow an observer within the train reference frame to find the velocity of the train reference frame, in contradiction to the classical principle of relativity. All the results of this thought experiment are based only on information available from within the train reference frame, without needing to utilize the Galilean or Lorentz transformation equations between reference frames. The sound wave can discern relative motion between two reference frames, while the light wave cannot.
  10. According to the relativistic definition of simultaneity, if two spatially separated events occur such that the light waves generated by these two events arrive at the midpoint of the line adjoining them, at the same time, then these two events are considered simultaneous. However, if these two events occur in still air, then any sound waves that might also be generated may not arrive at this midpoint, at the same time. The events occur at the endpoints of their adjoining line and form a tandem, of length L, where all the discrete points on the line remain at a fixed distance of separation, whether the tandem is in motion, or at rest. If this tandem (material object) is moving at a constant velocity v along a line parallel to the line adjoining them, through still air, then the sound waves generated by the events at the endpoints will not arrive at the midpoint simultaneously. The speed and direction of the tandem relative to the still air may then be mathematically determined using a modified formula from the Michelson-Morley experiment, in which the value of c is switched from the speed of light, to the speed of sound. With the light flash signaling the departure time of the sound wave, and using clocks to measure the arrival time of the sound wave, then the time interval t along with all the other variable values are available from within the tandem reference frame (the air molecules pass freely through the porous conceptual walls of the reference frame). This methodology of using sound waves to investigate the motion of a material object, combined with the Doppler Effect, calls into question the classical principle of relativity by allowing the determination of relative motion completely from within a single reference frame which is stationary or in motion.
  11. The question I want to ask is: can the following thought experiment detect absolute motion, or will it detect a sort of intermediary motion; which is neither absolute motion, nor absolute rest? This intermediary motion is like Einstein relative motion, but without using a Galilean or Lorentz transformation between reference frames. It comes about when sound waves are used to investigate the motion of material objects through a stationary or moving medium. This air/medium is in and amongst two reference frames, one at relative rest, and one in relative motion. According to Galileo, Newton, and Einstein, the principle of relativity states that no mechanical experiment can be done to detect absolute motion, or motion of a material object relative to an everywhere stationary medium (similar to Michelson-Morley aether). The Galilean and Lorentz transformations rely upon the mathematical pretense that one reference frame is regarded as being stationary, although actually it is in motion. So that, a fictional wind must be imagined to simulate reality. Whereas imagining that a moving train is simply, moving, will produce an alternative method for mathematically manipulating reference frames which are in relative motion to one another. The speed of the sound wave does not change, but the distance it travels at a constant velocity does change. This will be outlined in the following thought experiment. A question which may come to mind is, to which reference frame does the air belong? A common reformulation of the classical principle of relativity states that: ♦The velocity of any material object moving through space has different values for two observers moving relative to one another at a constant velocity. (Galilean addition of velocities) This experiment seeks to find if these two velocity values are measurably different, or are actually measurably the same. It will measure the time interval between two mechanical events which occur in the reference frame that is moving with a constant velocity. This time interval is measured by the two observers, one in each reference frame, each possessing one of two distantly separated clocks. It is proposed that each clock should then make approximately identical measurements for the time interval between these two mechanical events. On a windless night (air molecules at rest relative to the earth), a train of length L is traveling at the constant velocity v along a flat straight section of train track. There is an observer in the caboose (train reference frame) as well as another observer on the station platform near the track (earth reference frame). They each have identical clocks with which to conduct the following thought experiment. They will attempt to detect absolute motion, or at least test a common reformulation of the classical principle of relativity. That is, to show that two observers can measure the same value for the velocity v of the train using the same formula, without a Galilean transformation, although these two references frames are moving relative to one another. The observer in the caboose has a light source with which she will send a signal to the engineer at the front of the train. She will lean through an open window to do this. Outside the window, the still air does not have the velocity of the train, thus the air velocity will have either some or no effect on the velocity of the sound wave, but it will yield the same result for both observers. Upon seeing the light signal the engineer will blow the train’s whistle, sending out sound waves which the caboose observer will be able to hear. At the moment she sends the signal she starts the single clock that she has. The platform observer will also see this signal and he will start his single clock at the same moment. Thus, their clocks have essentially been synchronized. The two observers will then be in a position to find the motion of the train (material object) relative to the still air (medium at rest, Michelson-Morley). Over this short distance the light signal is effectively instantaneous, so that the time t she measures is essentially the time for the sound wave to travel the length L to her ear. When she hears the whistle sound she stops her clock and then once again flashes her light. The platform observer also stops his clock upon seeing this second flash. The time interval between the two light flashes therefore represents the time interval between the departure and arrival events of the sound wave, as seen by the observer in either reference frame. Disregarding reaction times, both observers should measure approximately the same interval of time t. Since the speeds of the sound wave and the train are so much slower than the speed of light, the Special Relativistic effects of time dilation and length contraction are negligible. As the experiment proceeds, the caboose moves in the forward direction, at the speed of the train, to meet the rearward travelling sound wave, so the sound wave will travel a distance that is less than L, the length of the train measured at rest. The speed of the sound wave is not altered by the speed of the source, but the motion of the material object (train) is disengaged from the medium (still air). This should lead to, approximately, identical time interval measurements by the observer in each reference frame. The air molecules freely flowing between the two reference frames moving relative to one another make this supposition mechanically plausible. The mechanical disengagement of the physical train from the still air permits the easy mathematical passage between reference frames, that is the critical premise that underlies this thought experiment. The airy particles pass easily through the porous conceptual walls of the reference frames, like the ghostly spirits of a haunted house. The caboose and the train engine are at a fixed distance apart. They have formed a tandem which is moving through the air (medium), both at a single velocity, maintaining this distance of separation. The sound wave and the caboose, having begun their journeys at the endpoints of L, will meet at the same location in space as seen by either reference frame. The caboose will have the constant velocity v, and the sound wave will have the constant velocity c (the velocity of the wave does not change, the distance it travels through the still air changes). In the same duration of time t, they will have, taken together, traversed the distance L. That is, the distance the sound wave has travelled rearward ct, added to the distance the caboose has travelled forward vt (distance = speed × time), should equal L. Thus, all the variable values are available to each observer within all the adjacent reference frames. To reflect the conditions of their meeting, somewhere within the length L, the following equation can be set up: ♦ L = ct + vt If they have measured the same interval of time in both reference frames, then this formula can be solved for v, the velocity (motion) of the train as seen by either reference frame: ♦ v = [L / t ] – c (A similar argument can be made if the train is moving in the reverse direction) Let, L = 1000 meters; c = 343 meters/second; assume v = 30 meters/second: ♦not, t = L / c (measured when train is at rest) = [1000 m] / [343 m/s] = 2.92 s ♦but, t = L / (c +v ), (train in motion) = [1000 m] / ([343 m/s] + [30 m/s]) = 2.68 s ♦v = [L / t ] – c = [1000 m / 2.68 s] – 343 m/s = 30.1 m/s This expression contradicts the Galilean, Newtonian, and Einsteinian principle of relativity in that although the two reference frames are moving relative to each other, they can each use one and the same formula to find the velocity of the train as seen from either reference frame. This results in bypassing the need for the addition of velocities from the Galilean transformation between references frames, when sound waves are used to investigate the motion of a material object through still air. Thus, a sort of intermediary motion emerges from the mist amongst the reference frames.
  12. The question I want to ask is: can the following thought experiment detect absolute motion, or does a sort of intermediary motion emerge which is neither absolute motion, nor absolute rest? It is like Einstein relative motion, but without using a Galilean or Lorentz transformation between reference frames. It comes about when sound waves are used to investigate the motion of material objects through a stationary or moving medium. According to Galileo, Newton, and Einstein, the principle of relativity states that no mechanical experiment can be done to detect absolute motion, or motion of a material object relative to an everywhere stationary medium (similar to Michelson-Morley aether). A common reformulation of this principle state that: ♦The same formula is not used for the constant velocity v of a material object as seen by an observer in a reference frame in which the object is viewed as being at rest; or, as seen by an observer in a reference frame in which the object is viewed as being in motion (Galilean addition of velocities). On a windless night (air molecules at rest relative to the earth), a train of length L is traveling at the constant velocity v along a flat straight section of train track. There is an observer in the caboose (train reference frame) as well as another observer on the station platform near the track (earth reference frame). They each have identical clocks with which to conduct the following thought experiment. They will attempt to detect absolute motion, or at least test a common reformulation of the classical principle of relativity. That is, to show that two observers can measure the same value for the velocity v of the train using the same formula, without a Galilean transformation, although these two references frames are moving relative to one another. The observer in the caboose has a light source with which she will send a signal to the engineer at the front of the train. She will lean through an open window to do this. Outside the window, the still air does not have the velocity of the train, thus the air velocity will have either some or no effect on the velocity of the sound wave, but it will yield the same result for both observers. Upon seeing the light signal the engineer will blow the train’s whistle, sending out sound waves which the caboose observer will be able to hear. At the moment she sends the signal she starts the single clock that she has. The platform observer will also see this signal and he will start his single clock at the same moment. Thus, their clocks have essentially been synchronized. The two observers will then be in a position to find the motion of the train (material object) relative to the still air (medium at rest, Michelson-Morley). Over this short distance the light signal is effectively instantaneous, so that the time t she measures is essentially the time for the sound wave to travel the length L to her ear. When she hears the whistle sound she stops her clock and then once again flashes her light. The platform observer also stops his clock upon seeing this second flash. The time interval between the two light flashes therefore represents the time interval between the departure and arrival events of the sound wave, as seen by the observer in either reference frame. Disregarding reaction times, both observers should measure approximately the same interval of time t. Since the speeds of the sound wave and the train are so much slower than the speed of light, the Special Relativistic effects of time dilation and length contraction are negligible. As the experiment proceeds, the caboose moves in the forward direction, at the speed of the train, to meet the rearward travelling sound wave, so the sound wave will travel a distance that is less than L, the length of the train measured at rest. The speed of the sound wave is not altered by the speed of the source, but the motion of the material object (train) is disengaged from the medium (still air). This should lead to, approximately, identical time interval measurements by the observer in each reference frame. The air molecules freely flowing between the two reference frames moving relative to one another make this supposition mechanically plausible. The mechanical disengagement of the physical train from the still air permits the easy mathematical passage between reference frames, that is the critical premise that underlies this thought experiment. The airy particles pass easily through the porous conceptual walls of the reference frames, like the ghostly spirits of a haunted house. The caboose and the train engine are at a fixed distance apart. They have formed a tandem which is moving through the air (medium), both at a single velocity, maintaining this distance of separation. The sound wave and the caboose, having begun their journeys at the endpoints of L, will meet at the same location in space as seen by either reference frame. The caboose will have the constant velocity v, and the sound wave will have the constant velocity c. In the same duration of time t, they will have, taken together, traversed the distance L. That is, the distance the sound wave has travelled rearward ct, added to the distance the caboose has travelled forward vt (distance = speed × time), should equal L. Thus, all the variable values are available to each observer within all the adjacent reference frames. To reflect the conditions of their meeting, somewhere within the length L, the following equation can be set up: ♦ L = ct + vt If they have measured the same interval of time in both reference frames, then this formula can be solved for v, the velocity (motion) of the train as seen by either reference frame: ♦ v = [L / t ] – c (A similar argument can be made if the train is moving in the reverse direction) Let, L = 1000 meters; c = 343 meters/second; assume v = 30 meters/second: ♦not, t = L / c (measured when train is at rest) = [1000 m] / [343 m/s] = 2.92 s ♦but, t = L / (c +v ), (train in motion) = [1000 m] / ([343 m/s] + [30 m/s]) = 2.68 s ♦v = [L / t ] – c = [1000 m / 2.68 s] – 343 m/s = 30.1 m/s This expression contradicts the Galilean, Newtonian, and Einsteinian principle of relativity in that although the two reference frames are moving relative to each other, they can each use one and the same formula to find the velocity of the train as seen from either reference frame. This results in bypassing the need for the addition of velocities from the Galilean transformation between references frames, when sound waves are used to investigate the motion of a material object through still air. Thus, a sort of intermediary motion emerges from the mist amongst the reference frames.
  13. A young woman and her two wyrd sisters are practicing their mysterious magicks tonight. They will exercise their telekinetic and mathematical skills with the levitation of a massive material object. In their alchemical experiment they will test whether two events that would appear simultaneous in a reference frame that is at rest, would these events still appear simultaneous if the reference frame were in motion? Can she make the invisible, visible? It is a windless night, during the witching hour (air / medium at rest relative to earth). Since her youth, a thousand years in the past, she has known that three is a magick number, so the sisters can begin their session under a beneficial sign. The young woman stands at the centerline of a soccer field with one sister at each endline. This field has the length L meters. Now, beforehand, the thrice wyrd sisters had planned their rite. The young woman’s sisters have agreed to take certain actions in response to her initiations. While in a mystical trance she conjures up two digital stopwatches which hover in the air before her, stacked, so that they are perpendicular to a line that runs from endline to endline. She continues her dark rite by whispering the secret words. Then, the entire green turf (and the reference frame attached to it) lifts itself from the dust, and rises above the ancient high treetops. It begins to fly away at the constant velocity c, straight and level, like a magick carpet, off into the starry night. Then, it turns, and flies similarly back to the stadium. A warlock soccer fan, with his supporters scarf, was observing the sisters rehearse their magicks from his stationary stadium seat in a reference frame attached to the earth (at rest). As the carpet tandem passes once again through the stadium, within view of the warlock she will, with some incantations, make a ball of golden light appear above her head. At this flash of light, her sisters, with their supernatural reflexes, will let out a banshee’s wail upon seeing the nearly instantaneous flash from this light. In the same instant, two disembodied bony fingers waft as smoky wisps awaiting, for at the appearance of the light they will start the timing devices. The warlock sees this flash and begins each of his two hidden clocks. Now their clocks are synchronized, so they will measure the same time intervals between these events in their separate reference frames. As each of her sisters’ wail reaches her, the ball of golden light flashes to green when the first sound wave arrives at her central position, then to red when the second sound wave arrives at her central position, the warlock will witness each arrival flash. The difference in arrival times of each sisters’ sound wave is due to the carpet’s forward motion. If the sound waves had arrived at the same time then that would mean the tandem was not moving through the still air and the light would instead flash to blue. They have made a three-seated tandem (aligned parallel to the direction of motion) so that they maintain the same distances relative to each other, no matter how quickly, or slowly, the tandem moves through space; or possibly not even moving at all. The distance L moves through space, neither increasing nor decreasing. So, each pair of clocks will measure two times, one from the forward sister and one from the rearward sister. The following equation adds these two times for a total time T (both the witch at the center position and the warlock seated nearby do this addition): ♦T = t1 + t2 = [0.5L / (c + v )] + [0.5L / (c – v )] = Lc / (c2 – v2 ) = [L / c ] × (1 – [v2/c2])-1 If the carpet were at rest (v = 0) then this formula would reduce to: ♦ Tr = t3 + t4 = [0.5L / (c + 0)] + [0.5L / (c - 0)] = L / c The zero velocity airy particles allow the porous conceptual walls of the reference frames to pass by without hindrance, so the air molecules velocity will neither increase nor decrease the velocity of the sound wave c travelling through the still air. It will remain constant despite the motion, or lack of motion, of the wailing banshees. The magick carpet will move straight, level, and true at the same time as the sound waves are in flight. The length L of the tandem will neither increase nor decrease. As the carpet moves forward, the distance from one sister to the center will appear to shorten, while the distance from the other sister to the center will appear to lengthen. This equation will account for this by inserting the velocity v. She puts some numbers into the calculator that she has been carrying beneath her pointed witchy hat; L = 100 meters; c = 343 meters / second; assume v = 30 meters /second; Tv = total time measured by each pair of clocks: ♦Tv = t1 + t2 = [Lc ] / (c2 – v2 ) = [100 m × 343 m/s] / [(343m)2 – (30 m/s)2 ] = 0.294 s as compared to the total time measured when the carpet is at rest: ♦Tr = t3 + t4 = L / c = 100 m / 343 m/s = 0.292 s thus, her velocity is: ♦v = √c2 – [(Lc ) / Tv)] = √(343 m/s)2 – [(100 m × 343 m/s) / 0.294 s] = 31.3 m/s Thus, she has made her velocity form from the night’s shadows (detecting her absolute motion relative to the still air/medium) using sound waves. She can make her magick carpet fly, through the night sky. This will contradict Galileo, Newton, and Einstein and their precious principle of relativity, which says that what she has done is impossible.
  14. A young woman stands before a high flat concrete wall on a blustery day. She directly faces it, at a distance of L meters away. The wind sweeps down past the wall at the constant velocity v and blows directly perpendicular from the wall to her face. She feels compelled to shout at the wall in some way, but she takes the stopwatch from her pocket and decides upon the experiment that she shall perform (akin to the Michelson-Morley aether wind experiment). The formula for a sound wave to echo back from a hard reflective surface fixed to the earth, when the air is still (medium at rest) is: ♦ 2L = cT However, I speculate that this is not the formula when there is a wind blowing at the constant velocity v in the direction directly opposite to the sound wave emission source. The velocity of the air molecules (medium) will have a measurable impact on the velocity of the sound wave as it travels from the source to the wall, and then back. Our home planet hurtles through interstellar space at a tremendous speed, 30 km/second, but the atmosphere does not get swept away, off into the cosmos. Fortunately for us, the molecular bonds of attraction and repulsion, and the force of gravity, hold a thin layer of atmosphere snugly against the earth’s surface. Though terrestrial winds may surpass 120 km/hour, most of the air molecules we depend upon to fill our lungs cannot attain enough velocity to escape the earth’s embrace. This balancing of hydrostatic pressure and gravity thus bestows upon us, the breath of life. So the earth makes its yearly orbital journey with a thin layer of atmosphere grasping tenuously to it; tornadoes and hurricanes may blow, but we shall breathe. So, when the air appears still, it is actually moving at the velocity of the earth. It is supposed that we cannot detect this motion by any mechanical experiment in the reference frame of the earth; however, it is worth exploring the scenario when the air molecules are disengaged, such as by a wind, from the rapidly moving surface of the land and sea. She stands, with her mouth and ears at the ready, opposite the high and hard reflective surface, forming a moving tandem with it; that any shout she might make would come back to her some moments later. If she is standing at a reasonable distance from this reflective surface on a windless day, then the first formula applies; but if a wind is blowing as I have described before, then the maths are different. The hydrostatic pressure casts a cloak of invisibility over the motion of the stationary earthbound tandem, and the stationary air molecules trapped near the surface of the earth. The earth, the tandem, the earthbound air molecules, are all traveling through the galaxy at the same velocity v locked together in their motion. That is, when the air is still, but a wind will cleave this triumvirate. Despite the tandem being fixed to the earth’s surface during its daily gyre, there is no Doppler effect upon the sound wave traveling from the girl to the wall because the wave crests are squeezed together near the source (girl), but pulled apart near the receiver (wall) by an equal amount; and vice versa on the reflection’s trip, so she would observe no change in the wavelength or frequency of the wave. In the presence of a wind, the Doppler change in frequency vanishes, but the Doppler wind formula remains present and measurable: ♦ c` = c ± w, where c` is the Dopplerian speed of the sound wave in the presence of the wind. Because of the wind’s speed and direction, the new wave speed is c` = c – w as the sound wave travels away from the emitter (her mouth); but it is c`= c + w when the wave is reflected back towards its original source (her ear). That is, when compared to speed of sound in still air, the wind slows down (subtract from) the sound wave speed as it travels in one direction; but speeds up (adds to) the sound wave speed when it travels in the opposite direction. Thusly, the total trip time interval for the sound wave is: ♦not, T = [2L/c] ♦but, T` = [L / (c + w)] + [L / (c – w)] = [2Lc] / (c2 – w2) = [2L / c] [1 / (1 – [w2/c2]) ♦time = distance / speed. With the pen and pad from her other pocket, she begins to make her calculations. The given variable values for her experiment are: c = speed of sound in still air, 340 meters/second; w = speed of wind, 50 m/s; L = 100 meters. So, in the first echo scenario (no wind): ♦T = [2L] / c; T = [2 × 100m] / [340m/s] = 0.588s And, in the second echo scenario (wind): ♦T ` = [2Lc] / (c2 – w2); T ` = [2 × 100m × 340m/s] / [(340m/s)2] – [(50m/s)2] = 0.601s She makes note of these differing measured time values. This leads her to ponder her two scenarios of air motion: molecules at rest in a stationary reference frame, and molecules passing unencumbered through the porous walls of an apparently stationary reference frame. There is a measureable difference between an enclosed compartment and a reference frame. The “conceptual walls” of the reference frame do not compel the air molecules within it to go at the velocity of the reference frame. These free-spirit airy particles are not possessed by the earthbound reference frame. But it is difficult to say to which reference frame they belong; they belong to no reference frame, and are in all earthly reference frames. This alternative echo formula is only a close approximation. The moving air/medium has been disengaged from the stationary earthbound girl-wall tandem in a mathematically revelatory way. This has profound implications for the motion of any material object, when that motion is investigated by sound waves. At the slow speeds of the wind, the measured time interval does not suffer the Special Relativistic effects of time dilation and length contraction; the gamma factor value is negligible at this speed. Thus, the passage of time is nearly absolute, on the scale of her everyday life behind the wall.
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